Several Greek color words have enriched the English vocabulary.
We get the combining form melano from the Greek word meaning dark or black.
melancholy: a gloomy mental state; according to ancient physiology, a humor called “black bile” was secreted by the kidneys and the spleen, and was thought to cause melancholia.
melanoma: a skin tumor containing a dark pigment.
melanin: any dark brown or black pigments of animal or plant structures, for example, hair, or the surface of a raw potato when exposed to air.
The element leuk in certain medical terms is from the Greek word for white.
leukemia: a chronic disease characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells.
leukocyte: a white blood cell.
The Greek word for red gives us the combining form erythro, which is used in the specialized terminology of medicine, chemistry, and mineralogy.
erythrophyll: the red coloring matter of leaves in autumn.
erythroretin: a resinous constituent of rhubarb root.
erythroscope: an optical contrivance, by which the green of foliage is caused to appear red, while all other green objects retain their natural color.
erythrocyte: a red blood corpuscle.
Cyan is the Greek word for dark blue, but what artists call “cyan blue” is a color midway between green and blue.
cyanide: an extremely poisonous crystalline solid. It got its name because it was first obtained by heating the dye pigment known as Prussian blue.
cyanin: the blue coloring matter of certain flowers (e.g., violets and cornflowers).
cyanosis: blueness of the skin owing to the circulation of imperfectly oxygenated blood.
The Greek word from which we get the combining form chlor described a pale green.
chloroform: volatile liquid used as an anesthetic. Chloroform is colorless; it got its name as the result of combining the words chlorine andformic, as in formic acid.
chlorophyll: the coloring matter of the leaves and other green parts of plants.
chlorine: a yellowish-green heavy gas.
Finally, the Greek word for color gives us the combining form chromo, which creates nouns and adjectives that denote colored objects, coloring processes, and coloring agents:
chromatic: full of color.
polychrome: art executed in many colors.
chromium: a metallic element remarkable for the brilliant colors–red, yellow, or green–of its compounds.
(from Daily Writing Tips, Maeve Maddox, 2014)